The media are the most widespread and influential system of communication in the
contemporary world. They construct and circulate information and organize perception
through sound, screen and print form, which help to shape our sense of self and our
relationship with the society.
Over the past few years, media in India have grown significantly. They, in fact,
have become part of all areas of life. They are generating profit and employment,
providing information on political process and events, motivating public debate,
providing place for cultural expression and most importantly entertaining the public.
Through the course on Media Studies students at the higher secondary level will be given
an opportunity to get introduced to all these aspects of the media by developing a good
understanding of the theoretical and practical facets of media. At this level the course will
enable students to develop a conceptual understanding of the media that will involve both
critical reception of and active production through the media. It will also enable students
to express their own voice through media, as well as the ability to see through what mass
media offers. The basic idea is to provide students with an opportunity to develop life
skills which will enable them to analyze these potent forms of modern communication
and to help students to become wise consumers of media and also professional
communicators who can contribute to the media industry by being part of it.
• To develop in students an understanding of media and enable them to appreciate
potential and limitation of various media forms.
• To encourage students to participate in contemporary society as active citizens,
through their awareness of the political, social, economic, historical and
technological implications of the media.
• To develop skills to encourage the production of creative media messages.
• To introduce students to various career opportunities in mass media. 2
Media Studies -1
Communication is universal to all human beings and is central to our lives. In fact it
regulates and shapes all human behaviour. Therefore it is important to have clear
understanding of the concept of communication first and then gradually students will be
introduced to the concepts of mass communication and mass media .This course looks at
the basic nature and characteristics of communication, types of communication, process
of communication, and introduction to the various forms of media. The course will also
deal with the various roles mass media play in the society.
1. To develop in students an understanding of the concept and process of
communication and to enable them to appreciate the potential and limitations of
various communication processes.
2. To familiarize students with various forms of communication in today's
Information Society, including nonverbal, interpersonal and mass forms.
3. To develop in students understanding of the mass communication process.
4. To introduce students to different areas of mass communication.
5. To develop an informed and critical understanding of the nature of mass media.
6. To acquaint students about historical growth, development and trends of different
7. Develop an understanding of the effects of mass communication upon society and
how the media influence our understanding of reality. 3
THEORY Total Periods 180
Unit I Communication Periods : 30
• Communication and its Importance
• Effects of Communication
••• Elements in the Process of Communication (Input, sender, channel, Noise,
••• Forms and Method of Communication
••• Types of Communication: Intrapersonal, Interpersonal, Group and Mass
••• Noise in Communication and the Importance of Perception
••• Effective Communication
Unit II Understanding Media Periods : 35
• Role of Media in our Life
• Media Time Line
• Media & Mass Media
• What makes "Mass" Communication Unique?
• Functions of Mass Media (Surveillance, Interpretation, Linkage, Entertainment,
purveyor of ideologies)
• Types of Mass Media
• Role of Media in a Democracy
Unit III: 3. Print Media: Periods : 40
• The World of Print Media
• Types and Characteristics of Print Media
• Different Types of Print Media
• Journey of Newspaper From Hickey's Gazette to Online Newspapers
• Role of Press in Social & Political Movements
• Freedom of Press- Role of Press Council of India
• Press Ownership and Control
• Making News
• Analyzing News
• Representation of Different Groups- Stereotyping and Labelling in Media
• Content of Newspaper: News Stories, Features, Articles, Editorial, Advertorial,
Advertisements & Public Relations
• Alternatives to Mainstream Journalism
Unit IV Media, Development And Society Periods :40
• Understanding The Role of Media in Development
• Development Communication
• Development Communication Initiatives in India
• Writing on Development Issues
• Media as Public Sphere
• Media as Public Service
• Media and Civil Society
• Citizen Journalism 5
Unit V Advertising Periods: 35
• Role of Advertising in Marketing
• Evolution of Advertising
• Functions of Advertising
• Types of Advertisements
• Ethics in Advertising
• Current Issues in Advertising- Product Placement, Surrogate Advertising,
Celebrity Endorsements, and Representation of Women in Advertisements,
Catch Them Young- Children in Advertising.
Practical for class XI
• Whispering Gallery: Play the game " Whispering gallery". The game can be
played with group of 10-15 students. A class can be divided into three or four
such groups.The game begins with a group leader whispering a message to the
first member of the group, who then whispers it to second and so on, till the
message reaches the last group. The leader checks to see how much the message
has been changed. All groups may discuss the reasons for the tranformation of
messages while they were playing the game. Write down what the game tells you
about communication process.
• Communication Breakdown: What is the most embarrasing communication
breakdown that has happened to you? Discuss in class.
• My Communication Diary: How much of your typical day is spent in
Intrapersonal, Interpersonal, group and Mass communication.
• You cannot not Communicate: Consider a situation, when you greet your friend
and there is no response from his/her side. What message do you get from his/her
silence? Discuss among your friends. 6
• Why do we communicate? Think about various communication activities you
were involved in yesterday. Make a list of reasons that prompted you to
communicate. Did you require direct or indirect participation of others to achieve
your purpose of communication?
• Effects of Communication: From your daily experiences make a list of
intentional and unintentional effects of communication. Discuss these experiences
in your class.
• Communis: The word communication comes from the Latin word ‘communis’
meaning common. When we communicate we try to establish commonness with
someole According to Denis McQuail, communication is a process which
increases commonality- but also requires elements of commonality for it to occur
at all. Do you agree or disagree with the above statement. Write an article of 200
words to prove your point.
• Be Aware of your Body language: Make a list of your body gestures which you
feel reveals your emotions and thoughts. Ask your parents and friends to make
similar list for you. Compare the three lists. Write in 200 words what new things
have you learned about yourself.
• Johari Window: Fill out a Johari window for yourself. Write a 200 word essay on
what you have learned from the activity
• My Interpretation: Bring a photograph. Display it in you class and interpret the
photograph. Discuss your interpretation of the photograph in class.
• My Media Diary: Find out amount of time you spent with each medium during a
week. Write down media messages you read, heard and watched, duration and
motivation for receiving those messages. 7
• A Day without Media: Write a diary of your activities on the day you used no
mass media at all. What problems did you face when no mass media were
available to you? Write which media you used the most the next day to
compensate for the day when you had no interaction with the media.
• Functions of Mass Media: Find out current examples of media surveillance,
Interpretation, Linkage, Entertainment, and transmission of values.
• Development stories: Analyze the content of a Newspaper for a week and try to
find out how many development stories/ Stories based on social issues were
covered in that newspaper. Do you think the justice was done to the story in terms
of space allotted and positioning of the story in newspaper. Discuss it in the class.
• Your views: The true function of journalism is to educate the public mind, not to
stock it with wanted and unwanted impressions; Gandhjii said this in 1903.What
is your take on this keeping in view the present media scenario.
• My City Newspaper: Find out how many newspapers are published from your
city/town? Read at least three newspapers for a week to find issues concerning
the teenagers. Analyze the issues and make a presentation to the class about the
same with comparative analysis among three papers, if they took the same issues.
• Why read newspaper when I can watch: Teacher will identify one news story on
T.V. Half the class will view that news on T.V. The other half will read newspaper
article about the same story. In a face-off discussion, each side will take turn
challenging each other for details and insight into full story. The objective of this
exercise will be to list pros and cons of TV coverage versus newspaper coverage
of that story. 8
• Cinema- the mirror of society :Write about a film which made you feel as if it
was close to the small struggles of your life or those of someone you know. Do
you think that the film had more dramatic elements as compared to those in your
• Magazine: Make a list of the magazines you read and write a paragraph on why
you read them.
• How much time do you spend on the mobile/ internet? Make a list of all your
activities from researching the relevant material for the homework to e-mailing
• Tune in to radio: Listen to the morning programmes of AIR, a private FM station
and a community radio in your city and list the strength and weaknesses of each
of these programmes.
• Media & Democracy: Make a list of news stories whose publication or broadcast
have strengthened democracy around you.
• It’s a mistake: Do you recall a newspaper or TV channel apologizing to its
audience for damaging the reputation of a person? Make a list of such unfair and
incorrect representation of facts by various news media and send them to their
• Ad impact: Cut two advertisements of similar product with different names.
Which one do you think will make a greater impact and why?
• My school Newspaper: Bring out an issue based school newspaper.
• Campaign Review: At any given time, there are always a few campaigns on social
issues like health, women/girl empowerment, and anti-smoking in the media. Follow 9
a campaign on one such social issue in the mass media like radio, television and
print. Speak to at least 10 youth to know the impact of the campaign on the
• Do they recall having seen/heard/watched it?
• Do they find it credible/no credible?
• Would they take the action called for?
• If yes, why?
• If no, why not?.
Stereotypes in Media: Make a study of at least two soap operas for two weeks and write
a report on stereotypes promote during the show.10
Media Studies II
I hear and I forget. I see and I believe. I do and I understand." The objective of the
course Media Studies II is to make students understand media by getting involved in
production process especially with electronic media-Radio and TV and new Media.
Producing media messages is a key to understand media. It not only helps students to
understand media but also foster creativity among them and also provide them an
opportunity to express their feelings and knowledge. This course will sharpen students’
critical thinking, analytical skills, group work skills, and ability to communicate ideas.
During this course students will be given opportunity to conceive, plan, execute, and
present media messages. During this course students will be introduced to the essential
tools used in the collection, processing, construction, and presentation of material in aural
and visual media. The main idea is to make students understand that all media messages
are constructed and its only by stepping into the shoes of a writer, photographer, film or
video-maker, students will be empowered to express opinions, explore issues, and gain
insight into how media messages are produced..
1. To develop creative skills through encouraging the production of media messages.
2. To encourage students to express their feelings and thoughts through media
messages they produce.
3. To develop skills to deconstruct media messages by making them understand the
constructed nature of media.
4. To enable students to identify various job possibilities in media. 11
THEORY Total Periods 175
Unit I Photojournalism Periods : 30
• Introduction to Photojournalism
• Photojournalism in India
• Types of photojournalism
• Working of a Camera
• Equipments in Photography
• Photo Feature
• Role and Responsibility of Photojournalist
Unit II Radio Periods : 35
• Development of Radio Broadcasting in India
• Characteristics of Radio
• Emergence of FM
• Internet Radio and Community Radio in India
• Popular Radio Genres: News bulletin, Documentary, Radio feature, Drama, Talks,
• Radio Programme Production
• Ownership and Control
• The Radio Station
• The Radio Team- duties and responsibilities of team members
Unit III Television Period: 40
• Brief History of Television in India.
• Trends in Indian Television: From SITE to Opening of Skies.
• Formats of Television Programmes
• TV Programme Production
• Ownership and Control
• Key Professional Involved in the TV Production
Unit IV Cinema Periods: 35
• Evolution of Indian Cinema
• Various genre of Indian Cinema
• Cinema and society ( case studies: classic & contemporary)
• How films are made( How a noted Filmmaker Satyajit Ray, Shyam Benegal
directed their films).
• Film appreciation/criticism
Unit V New Media Periods: 35
• New Media :Future of journalism
• Characteristics of New Media
• Traditional vs new media
• New Media and Convergence
• Blogging and twittering
• Citizen journalism 13
Practical for class XII
• Visit a photo studio and see how it functions.
• Write a photo feature.
• Arrange a visit to the local radio station to find out about its set up.
• Which radio station do you listen to and why? Mention five things which you
liked in that radio station and also mention five things which you did not like that
• Listen to one particular radio station for a day and document the various genres
of programme you heard and discuss in the class.
• Listen to a radio station for a day. After listening to the programmes aired on that
radio station try to figure out who are its primary target audience .Also mention
the reasons what made you think so.
• Visit to a T.V. station or talk to someone working in Television to find out how it
is organised and how it produces programme.
• Group work: What is your take on showing violence on the news channels?
Follow one such event, compare at least three news channels, and present your
findings on the following parameters: Showing of dead bodies Blood/gore/
wailing relations Use of camera to enhance the effect Use of animation to build
the chain of event show many times the footage repeated in a day.
• You are the education correspondent for a mainstream news channels, prepare
three questions on the examination system that you would ask the education
• Read 5-6 reviews in Newspaper. Write a review of recently released film. Discuss
in the class.
• See two movies by the same director what difference in theme and treatment do
• Watch a film and find out how many products are advertised through product
• Watch three movies on Mahatma Gandhi. Discuss in class on the following
parameters: content, presentation and storyline. 14
• Divide the class in four groups. Make a documentary on some social issues eg
Polio eradication, female foeticide, child marriage, water conservation etc.
• Write a review of programme that you saw on following channels
Evaluation (Class XI&XII)
THEORY: 40 marks
CLASS ASSIGNMENTS: 30 marks
PORTFOLIO: 30 Marks
Submission of portfolio of selected work produced during the year. The portfolio should
reflect work from all the five units .Portfolio will be adjudged on the basis of accuracy,
creativity, content and presentation. For all group activities students have to mention
particular role played by them in the teamwork.
Suggestions & Recommendations:
• Each school that offers Media Studies subject should have well-furnished Studio/
Media lab equipped with cameras, editing machine etc. where students can do
their production work.
• Training program for teachers on media studies so that they can deliver the
subject to students.
• Professional from the industries and from media education field should be invited
to interact with teachers as well as students.
• Students should be exposed to work situations and latest trends and development
in media. 15